AMCAT ENGLISH PREVIOUS QUESTIONS- 1

A fundamental principle of pharmacology is that all drugs have multiple actions. Actions that are desirable in the treatment of disease are considered therapeutic, while those that are undesirable or pose risks to the patient are called “effects.” Adverse drug effects range from the trivial, e.g., nausea or dry mouth, to the serious, e.g., massive gastrointestinal bleeding or thromboembolism; and some drugs can be lethal. Therefore, an effective system for the detection of adverse drug effects is an important component of the health care system of any advanced nation. Much of the research conducted on new drugs aims at identifying the conditions of use that maximize beneficial effects and minimize the risk of adverse effects.

The intent of drug labeling is to reflect this body of knowledge accurately so that physicians can properly prescribe the drug; or, if it is to be sold without prescription, so that consumers can properly use the drug.

The current system of drug investigation in the United States has proved very useful and accurate in identifying the common side effects associated with new prescription drugs. By the time a new drug is approved by the Food and Drug Administration, its side effects are usually well described in the package insert for physicians. The investigational process, however, cannot be counted on to detect all adverse effects because of the relatively small number of patients involved in premarketing studies and the relatively short duration of the studies.

Animal toxicology studies are, of course, done prior to marketing in an attempt to identify any potential for toxicity, but negative results do not guarantee the safety of a drug in humans, as evidenced by such well known examples as the birth deformities due to thalidomide.

This recognition prompted the establishment in many countries of programs to which physicians report adverse drug effects. The United States and other countries also send reports to an international program operated by the World Health Organization. These programs, however, are voluntary reporting programs and are intended to serve a limited goal: alerting a government or private agency to adverse drug effects detected by physicians in the course of practice. Other approaches must be used to confirm suspected drug reactions and to estimate incidence rates. These other approaches include conducting retrospective control studies; for example, the studies associating endometrial cancer with estrogen use, and systematic monitoring of hospitalized patients to determine the incidence of acute common side effects, as typified by the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program.

Thus, the overall drug surveillance system of the United States is composed of a set of information bases, special studies, and monitoring programs, each contributing in its own way to our knowledge about marketed drugs. The system is decentralized among a number of governmental units and is not administered as a coordinated function. Still, it would be inappropriate at this time to attempt to unite all of the disparate elements into a comprehensive surveillance program. Instead, the challenge is to improve each segment of the system and to take advantage of new computer strategies to improve coordination and communication.

1. The author is primarily concerned with discussing:
the importance of having accurate information about the effects of drugs
methods for testing the effects of new drugs on humans
procedures for determining the long-term effects of new drugs
attempts to curb the abuse of prescription drugs

Ans: A

2. The author implies that a drug with adverse side effects:
will not be approved for use by consumers without a doctor’s prescription
must wait for approval until lengthy studies prove the effects are not permanent
should be used only if its therapeutic value outweighs its adverse effects
should be withdrawn from the marketplace pending a government investigation

Ans : C

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the given passage?
A centralized drug oversight function would improve public health.
Most physicians are not aware that prescription drugs have side effects.
Some rare adverse drug effects are not discovered during the limited testing.
Consumers are seldom unable to understand directions for proper use of a drug.
Ans : C

4. The author introduces the example of thalidomide to show that some:
drug testing procedures are ignored by careless laboratory workers
drugs do not have the same actions in humans that they do in animals
drugs have no therapeutic value for humans
drugs are prescribed by physicians who have not read the manufacturer’s recommendations

Answer: Option B

5. The author of the passage regards current drug investigation procedures as:
important but generally ineffectual
lackadaisical and generally in need of improvement
comprehensive but generally unnecessary
necessary and generally effective

Ans: D

6. The author is most probably leading up to a discussion of some suggestions about how to:
centralize authority for drug surveillance among international agencies
centralize authority for drug surveillance in the United States
coordinate better the sharing of information among the drug surveillance agencies
improve drug testing procedures to detect dangerous effects before drugs are approved

Ans: C

7. The author relies on which of the following in developing the passage?
Examples
Statistics
Analogy
Rhetorical questions

Ans: A
In response to the increasing environmental damage wrought by poachers, authorities placed a ban on ivory in the 1980s. Although the ban resulted in an initial decrease in the sale and trade of illegal ivory and a concurrent increase in the elephant population, more pressing needs caused most Western nations to withdraw funding for poaching prevention programs. Without significant financial support, poorer countries were unable to effectively combat poachers. The resulting explosion in the ivory trade has seen prices increase to nearly 10 times the $45 per pound price at the beginning of the decade.

Unfortunately, the countries with the worst poaching problems have also tended to be the ones least able to combat the problem due to unstable political systems, corruption, lack of comprehensive enforcement programs, or some combination of all these factors. One primary hindrance to better enforcement of the ivory ban came from an inability to definitively identify the country of origin of illegal ivory.

Countries used this uncertainty to avoid responsibility for curbing illegal poaching in their territories by attempting to blame other countries for the oversights in enforcement. Now, though, zoologists have perfected a new DNA identification system. First, scientists gathered genetic data from the population of African elephants, an arduous effort that ultimately resulted in a detailed DNA-based map of the distribution of African elephants. Then, the researchers developed a method to extract DNA evidence from ivory, allowing them to match the ivory with elephant populations on the map. Zoologists hope this new method will pinpoint the exact origin of poached ivory and force countries to accept their responsibility in enforcing the ban.

1. The passage suggests which of the following about the ivory ban?
It will be successful now that the DNA-based map has been developed.
It has been mostly unsuccessful in reducing the trade of illegal ivory.
It will continue to be ineffective unless the problems of political corruption are solved.
Western monetary support was a major factor in its success.

Ans: D

2. The response of the countries with the worst poaching problems to the situation was most analogous to:
a tax evader who uses deceptive accounting practices to hide her income from auditors
an embezzler who steals from her company by pilfering small amounts of money over a long period of time
a criminal who argues that it is not he but one of his accomplices who is guilty of a crime
a con artist who convinces his victim that it is in the victim’s best interest to help him

Ans: C

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the DNA-based map created by zoologists?
Its assemblage involved a great deal of work on the part of the researchers.
Its creation will force countries to accept responsibility for the ivory poached from within their borders.
The map is able to pinpoint the exact elephant from which poached ivory was obtained.
It must be updated constantly to account for changes in elephant populations.

Ans: A

4. The passage is chiefly concerned with:
advocating a course of action for countries with poaching problems
exposing the weaknesses of the ivory ban
pleading with Western countries to re-institute financing for the ivory ban
detailing a way to overcome a problem that has lessened the effectiveness of the ivory ban

Ans: D

Economists have long recognized a persistent and unfounded belief among the population which has come to be known as the anti-foreign bias. As a result of this bias, most people systematically underestimate the economic benefits of interactions with foreign nations. Some psychologists believe that this bias is rooted in a natural distrust of the “other,” while others believe that a form of folk wisdom, seemingly in accord with common sense but nonetheless incorrect, explains the bias. This wisdom asserts that in any transaction there is a winner and a loser and any foreign nation that wants to engage in trade must be doing so because it seeks its own advantage. But nothing could be further from truth.

No less an authority than Adam Smith, one of the fathers of the modern free market system, spoke glowingly of foreign trade in his influential treatise Wealth of Nations. “What is prudence in the conduct of every private family, can scarce be folly in a great kingdom,” said Smith. His point is simple. A baker trades his bread to the cobbler for shoes and both men benefit from the trade because of the value of specialization. The same principle works for nations. Even more startling, a basic economic theorem, the Law of Comparative Advantage, states that mutually beneficial trade is possible even if one nation is less productive than the other.

Suppose a citizen of Country X can produce either 10 computers or five bushels of wheat and a citizen of Country Y can produce either three computers or two bushels of wheat. If one citizen from Country X switches from producing wheat to computers and three citizens from Country Y switch from producing computers to wheat, there is a net gain of one computer and one bushel of wheat.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
Arguing for an increase in trade with foreign nations.
Providing a historical context for a long-standing belief.
Demonstrating the fallacy of a particular way of thinking.
Illustrating an economic principle through an example.

Ans: C

2. The author most likely mentions the “baker” and the “cobbler” in order to:
provide a concrete illustration of an economic principle
discuss the types of goods available during Adam Smith’s time
evaluate an example used in Smith’s Wealth of Nations
show that all trade is based on specialization

Ans: C

3. The author most probably uses the word “startling” in reference to the Law of Comparative Advantage because:
it is puzzling that no one before Adam Smith thought of the Law
the Law of Comparative Advantage holds even when there is an imbalance in the capabilities of the nations
it is surprising that the general public is unaware of the Law of Comparative Advantage
most countries do not consider the Law of Comparative Advantage when devising their trade policies

Ans: B

4. As it is described in the passage, which of the following most closely resembles “folk wisdom?”
A farmer decides that it is going to rain after scanning the sky for dark clouds.
A child asks his parents why the sky is blue and the parents reply
A person spends 10 dollars on lottery tickets every week because he believes that
A mother tells her child to put on a jacket so he won’t catch cold, even though colds are caused by viruses.

Ans: D

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

“If you don’t keep quiet I shall shoot you”, he said to her in a calm voice.

A.    He warned her to shoot if she didn’t keep quiet calmly.
B.    He said calmly that I shall shoot you if you don’t be quiet.
C.    He warned her calmly that he would shoot her if she didn’t keep quiet.
D.    Calmly he warned her that be quiet or else he will have to shoot her.

Correct Op: C

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

She said that her brother was getting married.

A.    She said, “Her brother is getting married.”
B.    She told, “Her brother is getting married.”
C.    She said, “My brother is getting married.”
D.    She said, “My brother was getting married.”

Correct Op: C

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

She exclaimed with sorrow that was a very miserable plight.

A.    She said with sorrow, “What a pity it is.”
B.    She said, “What a mystery it is.”
C.    She said, “What a miserable sight it is.”
D.    She said, “What a miserable plight it is.”

Correct Op: D

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

Dhruv said that he was sick and tired of working for that company.

A.    Dhruv said, “I am sick and tired of working for this company.”
B.    Dhruv said, “He was tired of that company.”
C.    Dhruv said to me, “I am sick and tired of working for this company.”
D.    Dhruv said, “I will be tired of working for that company.”

Correct Op: A

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

“If you don’t keep quiet I shall shoot you”, he said to her in a calm voice.

A.    He warned her to shoot if she didn’t keep quiet calmly.
B.    He said calmly that I shall shoot you if you don’t be quiet.
C.    He warned her calmly that he would shoot her if she didn’t keep quiet.
D.    Calmly he warned her that be quiet or else he will have to shoot her.

Correct Op: C

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

She said to him, “Why don’t you go today?”

A.    She asked him why he did not go that day.
B.    She said to him why he don’t go that day.
C.    She asked him not to go that day.
D.    She asked him why he did not go today.

Correct Op: A

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

The little girl said to her mother, “Did the sun rise in the East?”

A.    The little girl said to her mother that the sun rose in the East.
B.    The little girl asked her mother if the sun rose in the East.
C.    The little girl said to her mother if the sun rises in the East.
D.    The little girl asked her mother if the sun is in the East.

Correct Op: B

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

Nita ordered her servant to bring her cup of tea.

A.    Nita told her servant, “Bring a cup of tea.”
B.    Nita said, “Bring me a cup of tea.”
C.    Nita said to her servant, “Bring me a cup of tea.”
D.    Nita told her servant, “Bring her that cup of tea.”

Correct Op: C

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

My cousin said, “My room-mate had snored throughout the night.”

A.    my cousin said that her room-mate snored throughout the night.
B.    my cousin told me that her room-mate snored throughout the night.
C.    my cousin complained to me that her room-mate is snoring throughout the night.
D.    my cousin felt that her room-mate may be snoring throughout the night.

Correct Op: A

In the questions below the sentences have been given in Direct/Indirect speech. From the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Indirect/Direct speech.

“Please don’t go away”, she said.

A.    She said to please her and not go away.
B.    She told me to go away.
C.    She begged me not to go away.
D.    She begged that I not go away.